Ancient Indian Astronomy and mathematical terms

Indian astronomy and mathematical terms,Terms used in the Maha-Bhaskariya

Amsa : (1) Part, fraction

(2) Degree (_)

Amsaka : Degree (_)

Amsumat : Sun

Aksa : (1) Latitude, (2) Five

Aksakarna : The hypotenuse of the equinoctial midday shadow (of the gnomon)

Aksakoli : Colatitude. Also, sometimes, the Rsine of colatitude.

Aksayuna : The Rsine of latitude

Aksacapa : The arc of latitude, or simply latitude.

Aksacapayuna : The Rsine of latitude

Aksacapa : The arc of latitude, or simply latitude.

Aksacapayuna : The Rsine of latitude

Aksajiva : The Rsine of latitude

Aksajya : The Rsine of latitude

Aksabhaga : The degrees of latitude

Aksavalana : See Valana

Aksasya valanam

Aksavalana : See Valana

Aksamsa : The latitude of a place, terrestrial latitude, or simply latitude.

Aksamsaka : Same as Aksamsa

Aksonnati : Inclination of the (Earth’s) axis, i.e.,the latitude of the place.

Agata : Untraversed portion; portion to be traversed.

Agra (1) : End. (2) Residue Remainder (3)Agra

Agraguna : The Rsine of Agra

Agra : The arc of the celestial horizon lying between the east point and the point where a heavenly body rises,or between the west point and the point where a heavenly body sets.

Angaraka : Mars

Angula : Finger-breadth.

A unit if linear measurement defined by the breadth of eight barely corns.

Acala : (1) Seven. (2) Fixed. To make acala in astronomy means to apply the method of successive approximations.

Aja : The Sign Aries.

Ativakra : A planet is said to be ativakra when it is in the middle of its retrograde motion.

Adhika-masa : Intercalary month. The Intercalary months denote the excess of the lunar (synodic) months over the solar months in a certain period. Thus interacalary months in a yuga = lunar months in a yuga-solar months in a yuga.

A true intercalary month is one in which the Sun does not pass from one sign into the next.

Adhikabda : Intercalary year, i.e., a collection of twelve intercalary months. See Adhikamsa.

Adhikaha : Intercalary day, i.e. intercalary tithi.

Adhimasa : Intercalary month. See Adhikamasa

Adhimasaka : Same as Adhimasa.

Adhimasasesa : The residue of the intercalary months.

Adhva : The distance of a place from the prime meridian.

Adhvana : Same as Adhva.

Anudis : Parallel

Anupata : Proportion

Anuloma : Direct, A planet is said to be anuloma when its motion is direct, i.e., from west to east.

Antyaguna : See Antyajiva

Antyajiva : The current Rsine-difference, i.e. the Rsine- difference corresponding to the elementary arc occupied by a planet. In Hindu trigonometry a quadrant of circle is divided into 24 equal parts, called elementary areas.

Antyajya : Same as Antyajiva.

Antyaphala : Maximum correction due to mandocca or maximum correction due to sighrocca. The former is equal to the radius of the manda epicycle and the latter is equal to the radius of the sighra epicycle.

Apakrama : Declination.

Apakramaguna : The Rsine of declination

Apakramajya : The Rsine of declination.

Apakramadhanu : The arc of declination, or simply declination.

Apagama : Declination.

Apacaya : Decrease.

Apama : Decrease.

Apama : Declination.

Apamadhanu : The arc of declination, i.e., declination.

Apamo gunah : The Rsine of declination

Apavarta : The greatest common divisor; abrader.

Adbapa : The lord of the year, i.e., the planet which is the regent of the first day of the year.

Abhyasa : Multiplication

Abhra : Zero

Amrtatejas : Moon

Amrdadidhiti : Moon

Ambara : Zero

Ambaroruparidhi : The work ambara means, according to Hindu astronomers, “that part of the sky which is illuminated by the rays of the Sun”. The word admaroruparidhi likewise means “the periphery of the illuminated sphere of the sky”.

Ayana : The northward or southward course of a planet, particularly the Sun. The ayana of a planet is north or south according as the planet lies in the half- orbit beginning with the sayana sign Capricorn or in that beginning with the sayana sign Cancer.

Ayuta : Ten thousand

Arka : (1) Sun. (2) Twelve.

Arkaputra : Saturn.

Arkavarsa : Solar year

Arkasambhava : Solar month


Ardhacaturtha : Three and a half (3½). Literally, four minus half.

Ardhapancaka or Ardjapanacama : Four and a half (4½). Literally, five minus half.

Ardhavistara : Semidiameter, radius, or 3438’.

Ardhastamila : Half set

Avanati : (1) Meridian zenith distance. (2) Celestial latitude. (3) Parallax in celestial latitude.

Avanatilava : The degree of meridian zenith distance.

Avanatilavajiva : The Rsine of avanatilava.

Avanatiliptika : Avanti in minutes of arc.

Avanama : Zenith distance.

Avama : Omitted lunar days or omitted tithis.

Avamaratrasesa : The residue of the omitted lunar days.

Avamasesa : The residue of the omitted lunar days.

Avalambaka : (1) Plumb (2) The Rsine of colatitude.

Avalambakayuna : The Rsine of colatitude.

Avasessa : Remainder.

Avisista : Obtained by applying the method of successive approximations.

Avisesakarna : The method of successive approximations.

Avisesana : To perform Avisesakarma.

Avisesatithi : The tithi (i.e. the time of apparent conjuction of the sun and Moon) obtained by the method of successive approximations.

Avisesanadi : The nadis obtained by the method of successive approximation.

Avisesavidhi : See Avise sakarma.

Avislista : Same as Avisista

Avisama : Even

Asvi : Two

Asvin : Two

Asti : Sixteen

Asakrt : Repeatedly, or by using the method of successive approximations.

Asita : (1) Dark. (2) The unilluminated part of the Moon’s disc. (3) Saturn.

Asita-paksa : The dark half of a lunar month.

Asu : A unit of time equivalent to a lunar month.

Asrktanu : Mars. Mars is called asrktanu (asrk = blood, tanu = body) because it is red in coclour.

Asta : Setting.

Astakala : Time of setting

Astalagna : The setting point of the ecliptic, i.e. that point of the ecliptic which lies on the western horizon.

Astasutra : The rising setting line (udayastasutra)

Astodayagrarekha : The rising-setting line.

Astodayagrarekha : The rising-setting line.

Ahargana : The number of days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch)

Aharmana : The length of day.

Ahoratra : A day and night

Ahoratra-viskambha : Day-radius

Asita : (1) Dark. (2) The unilluminated part of the Moon’s disc. (3) Saturn

Asita-paksa : The dark half of a lunar month.

Asu : A unit of time equivalent to 4 seconds

Asrktanu : Mars. Mars is called asrktanu (asrk = blood, tanu = body) because it is red in colour.

Asta : Setting

Astakala : Time of setting

Astalagna : The setting point of the ecliptic, i.e. that point of the ecliptic which lies on the western horizon.

Astasutra : The rising setting line (udayastasutra)

Astodayagrarekha : The rising-setting line.

Ahargana : The number of days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch).

Aharmana : The length of day.

Ahoratra : A day and night

Ahoratra-viskambha : Day-radius.

Ahnam ganah : Same as Ahargana

Ahnam nicayah : Same as Ahargana

Akasa : Zero

Apya : Purvasadha, the twentieth naksatra

Ayama : Length

Ara : Mars.

Arki : Saturn

Asa : (1) Direction (2) Ten.

Asana : Approximate

Astambika : Pertaining to sunset

Asphujit : Venus

Ahnika : (1)Pertaining to day.

(2) A special astronomical term used by Bhaskara I. See MBh, i. 16-18

Ina : (1) Sun (2) Twelve

Indu : (1) Moon (2) One.

Inducca : Moon’s apogee, i.e, the remotest point of the Moon’s orbit.

Indriya : Five

Indvahah : Lunar day or tithi

Isu : Five

Ista : Given, or desired, or chosen at pleasure.

Ucca : The ucca is the apex of a planet’s orbit. It is of two kinds: (1) mandocca, i.e. the apex of slow motion, and (2) sighrocca, i.e., the apex of fast motion. In Hindu astronomy, the mandocca is defined to be the remotest point of planets’ orbit where the planet’ appears smallest. It is therefore the same as the “apogee” of modern astronomy. The sighrocca of the superior planets is an imaginary body which remains in the same direction as the mean Sun; that of an inferior planet lies approximately in the same direction from the Earth as the actual planet is from the Sun.

Uccabhukti : (Daily) motion of the ucca; apsidal motion.

Utkrama : Reverse order

Utkramayuna : Same as Utkramajya

Utkramajiva : Same as Utkramajya

Utkramajya : Rversed sine (=Radois x versed sine)

Uttara : North

Uttargola : Northern hemisphere, i.e. the hemisphere lying to the north of the equator.

Udak : North

Udayajya : The agra of the rising point of a plancet’s orbit

Udayaprana : Times of rising of the signs measured in asus.

Udayarasipranapinda : The time in asus of rising of the rising sign.

Udayalagna : The rising point of the ecliptic, i.e., the horizon- ecliptic point in the east.

Udayasu : Time of rising (of the signs) on asus.

Udyastamaya : Rising and setting.

Unnati : Elevation.

Uparaga : Eclipse

Usnatejas : Sun

Usnadidhiti : Sun

Rtu : Six

Aindragna : The name of the sixteenth nakstra Visakha

Aindri : East

Oja : Odd

Kakubh : Ten

Kaksya : Orbit of a planet.

Kanyaka : The sign Virgo

Kapala : Hemisphere.

Karana : (1) Process; working (2) The name of one of the principal elements of Hindu Calendar.

Karkata : (1) A pair of compasses. (2)The sign Cancer

Karna : (1)The hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle.

(2) The distance of a planet

Karnasutra : Hypotenuse line.

Kala : Minute of arc.

Kalakarna : The true distance of a planet in minutes of arc.

Kalanam sesah : The residue of the minutes (kalasesa)

Kaliyuga : According to Bhaskara I, Kaliyuga is a period of 1080000 solar years. The current Kaliyuga began on Friday, February 18, B.C. 3102, at sunrise at Lanka.

Karmuka : Arc.

Kalabhaya : Degrees of time. A degree of time is equivalent to 60 asus or 10 vinadis.

Kastha : (1) Arc. (2) Direction

Kastha : Direction.

Kilaka : Gnomon

Kilakagraguna : Same as Sankvagra

Kuja : Mars.

Kujasa : South

Kutila : Retrograde

Kutta : Pulveriser. See Kuttakara.

Kuttana : The process of solving a pulverriser (Kuttakara)

Kuttakara : Pulveriser. Equations of the type.

N = ax + r = by+s (1)

or ax - c = by (2) : arc called in Hindu mathematics by the name kuttakara. A kuttukara (pulveriser) is called sagra (residual) or niragra (non-residual) according as it is of the type (1) or (2).

Kumbha : The sign Aquarius

Kulira : The sign Cancer

Kria : Four

Krti : Square

Krttika : The name of the third naksatra

Kendra : (1) Anomaly. The kendra is of two kinds : manda- kendra and sighrakendra. The manda-kendra of a planet is equal to “ the longitude of a planet minus the longitude of the planet’s mandocca (apogee),” and the sighra - kendra of a planet is equal to the “longitude of the planet;s sighrocca minus the longitude of the planet.” (2) Centre.

Kendrajya : The Rsine of kendra

Koti : See bahu

Kotika : Same as koti

Kotiphala : The result obtained by multiplying the Rsine of koti due to a planet’s kendra by the epicycle and divinding the resulting product by 350.

Kotisadhana : Same as kotiphala

Karma : (1) Serial order (2) odd quadrant

Kramaguna : Same as kramajya

Kramajya : Rsine (= Radius x sine)

Kranti : Declination

Kriya : The sign Aries

Ksamadina : Civil day

Ksitiguna : Same as ksitijya

Ksitijaguna : Same as ksitiguna

Ksitija : A corrupt from of kritijya

Ksitijiva : Same as ksitijya

Ksitijya : Earthshine. The distance between the rising- setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o’ clock circle.

Ksitidhara : Seven

Ksitiputra : Mars

Kritimaurvi : Same as Ksitijya

Ksipti : Celestial latitude

Ksetranirmana : Celestial longitude

Ksepa : Quantity to be added

Ksonidhara : Seven

Kha : Zero

Khamadhya : Meridian

Khecara : Planet

Gagana : (1)Meridian (2) Zero

Gaganasya urttain : The circumference of the sky. See Ambaroruparidhi

Gana : Used in the sense of Bhagana

Gata : Traversed, elapsed

Gali : Motion. Generally used in the sense of “daily motion”.

Gantavya : To be traversed.

Guna : (1) Multiple or multiplication. (2) Rsine. (3) Three

Gunakara : Multiplier, coefficient

Gunapratana : Rsine

Gunaphala : Bahuphala and kotiphala

Guru : Jupiter.

Graha : Sign

Go : The sign Taurus.

Gola : Hemisphere.

Golakhanda : The semidiameter of the (celestial) sphere.

Golabheda : Same as Golakhanda

Graha : (1) Planet (2) Eclipse

Grahaganita : Astronomy

Grahacara : Motion of a planet

Grahana : Eclipse

Grahatanu : A special term used by Bhaskara I.

Grahadeha : Same as Grahatanu

Grahayoga : Conjunction of planets.

Grahanam tanuh : Grahatanu

Grahoparaya : (1) Eclipse. (2) Measure of an eclipse. (3) Beggining of an eclipse.

Grasamadhya : The middle of an eclipse

Grasasalaka : A needle (or line) of length equal to the portion of the diameter eclipsed.

Grasadi : The beginning of an eclipse.

Grahaka : The eclipsing body, the eclipser

Grahya : The eclipsed body.

Ghatika : Same as Ghati.

Ghati : A unit of time equivalent to 24 minutes.

Ghana : Cube

Ghata : Product, multiplication

Cakra : Circle, twelve signs, or 360_.

Caturasra : Quadrilateral

Candra : (1) Moon (2) One

Candrika : Same as Candra

Cara : Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six O’clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising.

Caradala : Ascensional difference. See Cara.

Cala : Sighrocca

Caliccoa : Sighrocca.

Capa : (1) The sign Sagittarius (2) Arc.

Cara : Motion or daily motion

Citra : The name of the fourteenth naksatra.

Caitra : The name of the first month of the year.

Chaya : Shadow. (2) The Rsine of the zenith distance.

Chayadairaghya : Same as Bhucchayadairaghya.

Chayabhramana : The path of the end of the shadow (of the gnomon)

Chidra : Nine.

Cheda : Divisor or denominator

Chedyaka : Projection, or graphical representation.

Jaladhara : Four

Jaladhi : Four

Jalapadik : West

Jalesadik : West

Jina : Twenty four

Jiva : Jupiter INDIAN

Jivadina : Thursday

Jiva : (1) Rsine (=Radius x sine). (2) The Rsine differences corresponding to the twenty-four divisions of the quadrant.

Jivabhukli : True daily motion derived with the help of the table of Rsine differences.

Juka : The sign Libra

Jna : The planet Mercury

Jya : Same as Jiva.

Jyasankalita : Used in the sense of “the given Jya”

Jyau : Jupiter.

Tatpara : Third of arc, i.e. one-sixtieth of a second of arc.

Tattva : Twentyfive

Tantra : Principle, doctrine, theory, rule, method. Also a class of astronomical works.

Tama : (1) The shadow of the Earth, particularly, the section of the shadow cone where the Moon crosses it, by a plane perpendicular to the axis of the shadow cone. (2) The Moon’s ascending node.

Tamomaya : The Moon’s ascending node.

Taraka : Star

Tara : Star

Taragraha : The star planets. The planets Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn are called star planets (targraha) in Hindu astronomy.

Tigmamsu : (1) The Sun. (2) Twelve.

Tithi : (1) Lunar day (called tithi). (2) Time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and Moon. (3) Time of beginning, middle, or end of eclipse. (4) Fifteen. (5) Thirty.

Tithipranasa : Omitted tithis Tithganta : Time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and Moon.

Tiryak : (1) Oblique. (2) Transverse.

Tunga : Same as Ucca

Turya : One-fourth

Tula : The sign Libra

Tuladhara : The sign Libra.

Trigrahaguna : The Rsine of three signs i.e. the radius or 3438’.

Trijya : Radius or 3438’

Tribhavana : Three signs.

Trimaurvi : Radius

Trairasika : Rule of Three.

Dala : Half

Dasaguna : The ten Rsines, viz. Sun’s udayajya, Sun’s madhyajya, Sun’s drkksepajya, Sun’s drugjya, Sun’s drggatijya, Moon’s udayajya, Moon’s udayajya, Moon’s madhyjya, Moon’s mandhyajya, Moon’s drkksepajya, Moon’s drgjya, and Moon’s drggatijya.

Dasajiva : Same as Dasaguna

Dasara : Two

Dahana : Three

Dik : (1)Direction(2) Ten Dikka : Direction

Ditisunupujita : Venus.

Dina : (1) Day. (2) Fifteen

Diragana : Same as Ahargana

Dinamana : Measure (or length) of the day

Dinarosi : Ahargana

Dinanam ganah : Same as Ahargana

Divasa : (1) Day (2) Aharyana

Divasagynardha : The day redius

Divasajiva : The day radius

Divasayojana : The number of yojanas that a planet traverses in a day

Divasavistarabheda : The day radius.

Divaguna : The day radius.

Divicara : (1) Seven (2) Planet

Dis, : (1) Director. (2) Ten.

Drkksepa : The drkksepa is the shortest arcual distance of the planet’s orbit from the zenith. It is also used for the Rsine of that distance.

Drggati : Arc corresponding to the Drggatijya.

Drggatijya : The drggatijya is the distance from the zenith of the plane of a planet’s circle of celestial longitude, or the Rsine of the shortest distance the zenith of a planet’s circle of celestial longitude.

Drgguna : The R sine of zenith distance.

Drgjiva : The Rsine of zenith distance.

Drgjya : The Rsine of zenith distance.

Drdha : Prime

Drsya-candra : The longitude of the Moon corrected for the visibility corrections.

Devapujya : Jupiter

Devamantri : Jupiter

Desakala : Used in the sense of desantara-kala, i.e. the longitude-correction in terms of time.

Desajata : The longitude of the place. That is, either the distance of the local place from the prime meridian, or the difference between the local and standard times.

Desantara-karma : Correction for the longitude of the place, the longitude correction.

Desantara-ghati : Desantra in ghatis.

Deha : Used in the sense of grahadeha. See Grahadeha

Dyugana : Ahargana

Dyujya : The day radius.

Dyuti : Shadow (meaning) “ the shadow of the gnomon”)

Dyuti-karna : The hyotenuse of the shadow (of the gnomon)

Dhudala : The day radius

Dyurasi : Ahargana

Dyuvyasa : The day radius

Dyuvyasa-bheda : The day radius.

Dyuvaysadha : The day radius.

Dvyagra : Residual pulverser with two residues.

Dhana : Addition

Dhanistha : The name of the twenty-third naksatra.

Dhanuh : (1) Arc. (2) The sign sagittarius.

Dhanuh-khanda : In Hindu astronomy, the quadrant of a circle is divided into twenty-four equal parts and these parts are known as kasiha, dhanu, dhanuhkhanda, dhanurbhaga, etc.

Dhanubhaga 225’

Dhanus : (1) Arc (2) 225’

Dhanvin : The sign sagittarius

Dharanidina : Civil day.

Dharasuta : Mars

Dhatridhara : Seven

Dhrti : Eighteen

Dhruvaka : A technical term.

Naksatra : (1) Star. (2) Asterism. (3) Twenty-seven

Naksatragana : Same as Bhagana

Naksatra-bheda : Occultation of stars.

Nakha : Twenty

Naga : Seven

Natabhaaga : The degrees (bhaga) of zenith distance (nata)

Natamsa : Zenith distance.

Nati : (1) The meridian zenith distance. (2) Celestial latitude as corrected for parallax in latitude.

(3) Parallax in latitude

Natijya : The Rsine of the meridian zenith distance.

Nanda : Nine

Nabha : Zero

Nara : (1) The sign Gemini. (2) Gnomon. (3) The Rsine of altitude.

Na : The Rsine of altitude

Nadika : A unit of time equivalent to 24 minutes.

Nadi : See Nadika.

Niraksa : Equator.

Niraksasu : Asus of the right ascension, i.e., the time in asus of rising at the the equator.

Nirapavartita : Unabraded, unabridged.

Nisakara : (1) Moon (2) One

Niscalakriya : Methos of successive approximations.

Nihsvasalava : Asus

Nr. : Gnomon

Netra : Two

Nemi : Circumference, periphery

Paksa : (1) Lunar fortnight, period from new moon to full moon, or from full moon to new moon. (2) Two

pada : Quadrant. (2)Square root

Parakranti : (Sun’s) greatest declination, or obliquity of the ecliptic.

Parmapama : Same as parakranti.

Paridhi : (1) Circumference, periphery. (2) Epicycle

Parilekha : Projection, graphical representation.

Parvala : Seven

Parvamadhya : The middle of the eclipse.,

Pala : Latitude

Palajiva : The Rsine of the latitude,

Palajya : The degrees of the latitude.

Palabhaga : The degrees of the latitude

Palangula : Used in the sense of ‘palabhangula’, i.e. the angulas of the equinoctial midday shadow.

Palamsa : The degree of the latitude

Pascardha : The western half.,

Pata : The ascending node of a planets orbit (on the ecliptic)

Parabhaga : The degrees of the longitude of the ascending node.

Puskara : Three

Purvalagna : The horizon-ecliptic point in the east.

Pankti : Ten

Pratimandala : Eccentric.

Pratimandala-karna : Processes under the eccentric theory.

Prabha : (1) The shadow of the gnomon. (2) The Rsine of the zenith distance.

Pralayastithinam : Omitted lunar days.

Prastara : The statement of possible combinations in a serial order.

Praggrasa : The first contact in an eclipse.

Prana : Same as Asu

Praleyarasmi : One

Pronnati : Altitude

Phala : (1) Result. (2) Correction

Bhava : The first of the seven movable karnas. The karna is one of the five important elements of the Hindu Calendar.

Bahula : The naksatra Krttika.

Bahu : The base (of a right-angled trangle). The upright of a right-angled triangle is called koti. (2) The bahu corresponding to a planets anomaly. This is the arcual distance of the planet from the its apogee or perigee whichever is nearer. Suppose that is the anomaly of a planet (or any arc, whatever) If is less thanthan _/2, ifself is the bahu; If 0 is greater the _/2 but less than _, (_-0) is the bahu; and if 0 is greater thatn 3_/2, (2_-0) is the bahu. The complement of the bahu is called koti.

Bahuka : Same as bahu.

Bahujya : The Rsine of the bahu (of a planet’s anomaly)

Bahuphala : See notes on MBh, iv. 6

Bahoh phalam : Same as Bahuphala

Bimba : The dise of a planet

Bimbardhu : The semi diameter of the disc

Budhasa : North

Bham : Twenty-seven

Bhaga : The naksatra Purva phalguni, the regent of which is Bhaga.

Bhagana : (1) The revolution-number of a planet, i.e., the number of revolutions that a planet performs in a certain period. The revolutions given by Bhaskara I correspond to a yuga, i.e., to a period of 43,20,000 years. (2) The naksatras.

(3) Twelve signs (or 360_)

Bhava : Eleven

Bhavana : Sign

Bhaga : (1) Part, fraction, (2) Division. (3) Degree

Bhagaladbha : Quotient

Bhagaseas : The residue of the degrees.

Bhagahara : Divisor

Bhagaharaka : Same as Bhagahara

Bhajya : Dividend

Bhargava : Venus

Bhidah : Half

Bhukli : Motion, or daily motion

Bhuja : Same as Bhja

Bhujantara : Correction for the equation of time due to the eccentricity of the ecliptic.

Bhujaphala : The equation of the centre.

Bhucchaya : The Earth’s shadow

Bhucchayadairghya : The length of the Earth’s shadow, i.e. the distance of the vertex of the shadow cone from the Earth’s centre.

Bhujya : See Ksitijya

Bhuta : Five

Bhudina : Civil day.

Bhudicasa : Civil day.

Bhudhara : Seven

Bhubrt : Seven.

Bhumidina : Civil day.

Bhrgu : Venus

Bhumidina : Civil day.

Bhrgu : Venus.

Bhrguja : Venus.

Bheda : (1) Half, (2) Occulation of the heavenly body.

Bhoga : Motion

Bhauma : Mars.

Maghavadgura :

Magha : Name of the tenth naksatra

Mandala : Circle; a collection of 12 circle.

Mandalamadhya : The centre of a circle

Mati : An optional number

Matsya : Fish-figure

Madhu : Caitra, the first month of the year

Madhyakranti : The declination of the merdian ecliptic point.

Madhyacchaya : The midday shadow (of the gnomon)


Lambakah : The upright due to the meridian-ecliptic point, i.e. the Rsine of the altitude of the meridian ecliptic point.

Madhyajya : The Rsine of the zenith-distance of the meridian -ecliptic point; the meridian-sine.


alambaka : Same as Madhyajataj lambakah.

Madhyalayna : Meridian ecliptic point.

Madhyasuryavanama : The zenith distance of the midday Sun, or the meridian zenith distance of the Sun.

Madhyavanati : The zenith distance of the midday Sun.

Mandakendra : Manda anomaly (=longitude of the planet minus longitude of the planet’s apogee)

Mandapata : See MBh, vii

Mandaphala : Correction due to the planet’s mandocca. In the case of the Sun and Moon, the equation of the centre.

Mandamanurviphalacapa : Same as Mandaphala.

Mandavrita : Manda epicycle

Mandasiddha : Corrent for the mandaphala.

Mandasiddhi : Correction (of a plnet) for the mandaphala

Mandantyajiva : The present Rsine-difference corresponding to the mandakendra i.e. the Rsine-difference of the clementary arc in which the planet lies.

Mandocca : The apogee of a planet.

Mandoccakarna : See Mandakarna

Mandocckendra : See Mandakendra

Mandoccavrtta : Manda epicycle.

Mithuna : The sign Gemini

Mina : (1) Fish-figure, (2) the sign Pisces

Muni : Seven

Mula : Square root

Mrga : The sign Capricorn

Mesa : The sign Aries.

Maitra : The naksatra Anuradha

Moksa : The separation of the eclipsed body after an eclipse.

Maurika : Minute of arc.

Maurvi : Rsine

Yantra : Instrument

Yama : (1) Saturn (2) Name of the second naksatra Bharani, whose divinity is Yama. (3) Two.

Yamala : Two

Yamya : South

Yamyagola : The southern hemisphere, i.e. the hemisphere lying to the south of the equator.

Yamyottara : South-north

Yamyottarayata : Directed south-to-north

Yugala : Two

Yugma : Even

Yoga : (1) Addition. (2) conjunction of two heavenly bodies.

Yogatara : Junction stars. These are those prominent stars of the twenty-seven naksatras which were used by the Hindu astronomers for the study of the conjunction of the planets, especially the moon, with them.

Yogabhaga : The degrees of the longitudes of the junction-stars.

Yojana : The yojana is a measure of distance. The length of a yojana is different at different places at different places and at edifferent times. The yojana of Aryabhata I and Bhaskara I is roughly equivalent to 7½ miles.

Randhra : Nine.

Ravi : (1) Sun (2) Twelve.

Ravija : (1) Saturn (2) A special term used by Bhaskara I.

Ravijadivasa : A special term used by Bhaskara I.

Rasa : Six

Rama : Three

Rasi : (1) Quantity (2) Sign

Rasijiva : The Rsine of one sign, i.e. Rsin (30_)

Rahu : The Moon’s ascending node.

Rudra : Eleven

Rudhira : Mars.

Rupa : One

Lagna : The horizon ecliptic point in the east.

Laghutantra : Short or simplified methods.

Lanka : A place in 0 latitude and 0 longitude. Also see supra, p.47

Lankarasyudaya : Times of rising of the signs of Lanka, or right ascensions of the signs.

Lankodaya : Times of rising (of the signs) at Lanka, or right ascensions (of the signs).

Labdha : Quotient

Lamba : The Rsine of the colatitude (of the place)

Lambaka : The Rsine of the colatitude

Lambakaguna : Same as Lambaka

Lambana : Parallax in longitude; or in particular, the difference between the parallaxes in longitude of the Sun and Moon.

Lambanalipta : Lambana in longitude in terms of minutes of arc.

Lambanantara : The lambana-difference.

Lambanantaranadika : The nadis of the lambana-difference, or the lambana-difference in terms of nadis.

Lava : (1) Part, portion, fraction. (2) Degree.

Lipta : Minute of arc

Liptika : Same as Lipta

Liptika vipurva : Viliptika; second of arc.

Vakra : Retrograde

Vakragati : Retrograde motion.

Vakrayamana : Retrograde motion.

Vakrigraha : A planet in retrograde motion.

Vacasam patih : Jupiter.

Vatsara : Year INDIAN

Vapu : The body (globe or disc) of a planet

Varga : Square

Vartamana : Present, current

Vartamanaguna : The present (or current) Rsine-difference, i.e., the Rsine difference of the elementary arc occupied by a planet.

Varsapa : The lord of the year i.e., the planet after whose name the first day of the year bears its name.

Valana : Deflection. Valana relates to an eclipsed body. IUt is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the calestial horizon and the north pole of the ecliptic. Valana is generally divided into two components, (i) Aksavalana and (ii) Ayanavalana. The Aksavalana is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the celestial horizon and the north pole of the equator. The Ayanavalana is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north poles of the equator and the ecliptic.

The Valana is also defined as follows: The great circle of which the eclipsed body is the pole is called the horizon of the eclipsed body. Suppose that the prime vertical, equator, and the ecliptic intersect the horizon of the eclipsed body at the points A, B and C towards the east of the eclipsed body. Then are AB is called the Aksavalana, arc BC is called the Ayanavalana and are AC is called Valana.

Valana is also called spastavalana.

Vasu : Eight.

Vahni : Three

Varuni : West

Vi : Celestial latitude. Evidently, vi is an abbreviated from the viksepa.

Vikala : Second of arc.

Vikastha : The arc of celestial latitude.

Viksipti : Celestial latitude

Vihsepa : Celestial latitude

Viksepajya : The Rsine of celestial latitude.

Viksepamsa : The degrees of celestial latitude.

Vighatika : A unit of time, equivalent to 24 seconds.

Vidis : Contrary direction.

Vinadika : Same as Vighatika.

Vinadi : Same as Vinadika

Vipritaguna : Rversed-sine

Vipulacchaya : Great shadow, meeting “the Rsine of the zenith distance”.

Vipulanara : Great gnomon, meaning “The Rsine of altitude”.

Vinandala : The orbit of a planet

Vimardadha : Half the duration of totality of an eclipse

Vimaurika : Second of arc.

Viyat : Zero

Vilagna : The horizon-ecliptic point in the east.

Vilipta : Second of arc.

Viliptika : Same as Vilipta

Vivara : Difference, intervening space.

Visakha : Name of sixteenth naksatra

Visesa : Difference

Vislesa : Difference.

Visva : Thirteen

Visama : Odd.

Visaya : Five

Visuvajya : The Rsine of the latitude (of a place)

Visuval : The equator

Visuvakarna : The hypotenuse of the equinoctial midday shadow.

Visuvatprabha : The equinoctial midday shadow.


pranapinda : Time in asus of rising of the signs at the equator, i.e., right ascension of the signs in terms of asus.

Viskambha : Diameter

Visnukrama : Three

Vistara : Same as Vistara

Vistara : (1) Diameter. “Vyasa, viskambha, and vistara are synonyms”, says Bhaskara I. (2) Length, breadth, etc. “Ayama, vistara, and dairghya are synonyms”, says Bhaskara I

Vihangama : Planet.

Vihaga : Planet

Vihayas : Zero

Vrtta : (1) Circle. (2) Epicycle

Vrttasankhya : The length of the circumference of a circle

Vrnda : Cube

Vrsa : The sign Taurus.

Veda : Four

Velakutta : Time-pulveriser.

Vaidhrta : An astronomical phenomenon.

Vaisuvati chaya : The equinoctial midday shadow.

Vyatipata : An astronomical phenomenon.

Vyasa : Diameter

Vyasakhanda : Radius

Vyasakhandanicaya : Same as Vyasakhanda.

Vyasardha : Radius or 3438_.

Vyoma : Zero

Sakrataraka : The naksatra Jyestha, whose regent is Indra.

Sakragura : Jupiter

Sanku : (1) Gnomon. (2) The Rsine of altitude (of a heavely body)

Sankagra : The distance of the projection of a heavenly body on the plane of the celestial horizon from the planet’s resing-setting line.

Sankvagrajiva : Same as Sankvagra.

Satabhisak : The naksatra Satabhikha

Sapharika : A fish figure.

Sara : (1) Rversed-sine. (2) One

Sasija : Lunar

Salin : One

Sikhi : Three

Silimukha : Five

Silocca : Seven

Siva : Eleven

Sighra : Same as Sighrocca

Sighrakarna : The distance of a planet obtained by the sighrocca process.

Sighrakendra : The sighra anomaly.

Sighrakendraphala : Sighraphala, i.e, correction due to the sighrocca.

Sighrajah karnah : Sighrakarna

Sighranyayapatacapa : Sighra epicycle

Sighrapata : See MBh

Sighravrtta : Sighra epicycle

Sighrasiddha : Corrected for the sighraphala.

Sighrantyajiva : The present Rsine-difference relating to the sighra (kendra)

Sighroccavrtta : Sighraepicycle.

Sitakirana : (1) Moon (2) One.

Sitarasmi : (1) Moon. (2) One

Sitamsu : (1) Moon (2) One.

Sukla : The illuminated part of the Moon’s disc; the phase of the Moon.

Srngonnati : The elevation of the Moon’s horns.

Saila : Seven

Sodhana : Subtraction.

Sodhaniya : A subtractive quantity technically called sodhaniya or sodhya.

Sodhya : See Sodhaniya

Sauklya : The illuminated part of the Moon’s disc.

Sravana : (1) Name of the 22nd naksatra. (2) The Hypotenuse (of a right-angled traiangle)

Samskrta : Corrected.

Sankalita : Meridian zenith distance

Sama : Even

Samamandala : The prime vertical

Samamandalaja cjaya : The prime vertical shadow.

Samamandalasanku : The Rsine of the prime vertical altitude.

Samarekha : The prime vertical altitude.

Samarekha : The prime meridian.

Samalipta : Two planets are said to be samalipta When their longitudes are equal up to minutes.

Samavalambajya : The Rsine of the colatitude.

Sarvapama : The greatest declination (of the Sun), i.e., the obliquity of the ecliptic.

Sagara : Four

Sarpamastaka : An astronomical phenomenon.

Simha : The sign Leo

Sita : (1) The illuminated part of the Moon’s disc; the phase of the Moon. (2) The light half of the month. (3) Venus

Sitakhaya : Venus

Sitapaksa : The light half of a lunar month, light fortnight.

Sitabindu : The point of the Moon’s diameter whcih lies at the end of the illuminated part of the Moon.

Sitamana : The measure of the illuminmated part of the Moon’s disc.

Suranathagura : Jupiter

Surapadik : East

Suredya : Jupiter

Suri : Jupiter

Surya : (1) Sun (2) Twelve.

Suryakaksya : The orbit of the Sun, the ecliptic.

Suryaja : Saturn.

Saimhikeya : The ascending node of the Moon’s orbit. (Saimhikeya literally means Rahu, son of Simhika)

Somaja : Mercury

Somasunu : Mercury

Saumya : (1) North. (2) The naksatra Mragasira. (3) Mercury

Sauri : Saturn

Sthiti : Duration (of an eclipse)

Sthitidala : Half the duration (of an eclipse)

Sthityardha : Half the duration (of an eclipse)

Sthula : Gross, approximate

Sparsa : Contact

Sparsakala : Time of the first contact (in an eclipse)

Spasta : True, corrected.

Sphuta : True

Sphuamadhya : True mean; the tube-mean planet.

Sphutayojana : Used in the sense of sphutayojanakarna

Sphutayojanakarna : The true distance (of a planet) in terms of yojanas.

Sphutavritta : True or corrected epicycle.

Svara : Seven

Harija : Horizon

Hara : Divisor

Hararasi : Divisor

Himamsu : (1) Moon (2) One

Hina : (1) Less (2) Omitted lunar day (hinadivasa)

Hinadivasa : Omitted lunar day.

Hinaratra : Same as Hinadivasa

Hutasana : Three.

(Names which gives numbers are based on Bhoothasankhya system)
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