Labels: Dr Gopalakrishnan
Labels: Swami Paramatmananda puri
Labels: Swami Nirmalanandagiri
Padmasana is the best asana for Meditation. padmasanam is one of the well-known asanas and holds the pride of place among sitting postures. lt easily fits into the definition of Patanjali on asana, "Sthira SukhamAsanam" which define asanas as staying steady and comfortable, Padmaasana, especially its important variation Badhapadmaasana.completely immobilizes the limbs and gives steadiness to the yogi's posture. The stretch experienced in all the stubborn joints, as the neck. Shoulders, elbows, wrists lower back, hip. knees, ankles and toes makes it I complete posture.
lt gives a very firm base for sitting for pranayama, Japa or study. No doubt it holds the fascination of many yoga aspirants.According to Sri Sureshwaracharya, the first Pithdhipathi of Sringeri sankaraMutt, Padmaasana, along with swastika, gomukha, and Hamsa are known as Brahmaasanas, as given in the last Ullasa (chapter) in Manasollasa, an authentic, elaborate commentary on sri Sankarabhagavatpada's, Daksliinamurti Ashtakam. Then Nrisirnha, Garuda, Kurma and Naaga are known as Vaishnavaasanamsand Vira, Mayura,Vajra and Sidha are Rudraasanas. Yoni asana is known among Saaktha group and Paschimottaanasana, is a Saiva Asanam.
Svastikam, gomukham, padmam, hamsaakyam, Bhrahmamaasanam! Nrisimham, garudam, kurmam, naagakhyam. Vaishnavaasanam, Virami, Mayuram, Vajraakhyam, sidhakhyam, rudramaasanam! Yonyaasanamviduhu. Saaktham. Saivam paschimataanakahym.
Labels: Yoga Asanas
SANSKRIT NAMES AND SYNONYMS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
For each and every medicinal plant there are many Sanskrit names. Each name also carries a special meaning conected with that medicinal plant. Presented below is the selected list of a few important medicinal plants and their Sanskrit names.
Augusta : agasti: agastidru, munitaru, vangasenaka:
Eagle wood : agaru, krumijagdham, yojakam, rajarham, pravara, vamsika, krumiham
Alangium : ankola, kolaka, rechee, deerghakeelaka
Sphaeranthus indicus : hapusha, munda, mahamundee, bhikshu, sraavenee, thapodhana
Aconite : athivisha, kasmeera, prathivisha, aranyaa, stungika, mahaoushadha, visharropa, amrutha, swethavachaa.
Rauwolfia serpentina : sarpagandha, nakulee, sarppadanee, rakthathrika, kukkutee
Tinospora cordifolia : guloochi, chinnaruha, chinnolbhava, valsaadanee, kundalana, amrutavallee, amruthalatika, bhishakpriya, madhuparni.
Nerium indicum : karaveera, aswaghana, aswamaara, hayamaraka
Marking nut tree : bhallathaka, agnimukhee, aarushkaram, ashkara, bhallee, Asoka tree asoka, anganapriya, hemapushpa, thamrapallava, gandhapushpa, vanchula, kankoli.
Malabar nut tree : Vaasa, vaasaka, vrushaka, simhasya, vamsa, Vishnu, vajeedanta
Prickly leaved elephants fruit : gojihwa, gojihwika, gobhi, daavika, khara, parnini.
Neem :nimba, arishta, hinguniryasa, manda, abhidhana, thiktaka
Sacred fig : aswatha, pippala, ksheeravruksha, chalapatra, bodhivruksha, kesavalaya.
Country fig: udumbara, jantuphala, sevya, kruphala.
Castor oil plant : ernda, panchangula, vaataari, deerghadandaa, kumbhee, gandharva hstha, tharuna, vardhamana, rumbaka.
Indian elma : chiribila, putrikaranja, karanja Ginger : srungaveram, suntee, nagara, mahaoushas adhee, ardhra, sakam.
Lemon grass : kaarpoorathruna, sugandha thruna
Salmali/red cotton tree : saalamalee, pischila, rakthapushaka, sthiraaya, mocha, pooranee, kantakadruma
Moura butter tree : madhuka, theekshana saara, vatarastam, madhusrava, swadupushpa.
Indian berthwort : gaarudee, ahigandha, rudrajaata, sunada, eeswari, arkamoola,
Indian beech : karanja, nakatamaala, guchapushpaka, ghrutapura, snigdapatra, krumimardhana, udakeerya
Deveils apple : dattura, dhoostura, unmaanttha
Balloon wine : karnaphota
Maddar : arka, sooryahwa, viksheera, ksheeraparnee, asphotam, vasuka, bhaskaram, ravi, mandaram, alarkam
Mexican poppy : swarnaksheeri, haimavatee, brahmadandee, parnee, peetadughaa.
Gingelly : thila, sneharanga
Cardamom : elm, sookshma, draavidee, upkunjee, sookshmylaa
Devil tree : saptaparna, visalatwak, chatraparnee, saaptachada, vishmacchada,
Ionidium saffraticosum : amburuka, padmacharinee, avitha, lakshmi, sreshta, sarada.
Kampferia galanga : sati, gandhamoolaka, draavidaka, kaalpaka, palaaka, chandaa.
Indian hemp : vijaya, sidhapuri, bhanga, harshana, maathulani, bhangi.
Prickly chaff flower: apaamarga, mayoora, sikharee, markatapippalee, durgradha, karamanjari, indulekhaa.
Chembulik myrobalan : hareethakee, abhayam, pathya, jeevapriya, rohini, chetakee.
Indian labernam : aaragwadha, nruendra, kruthamala, raajavrukham syaamaa, chaturangulam deerghaphala.
Wilk egg plant : kandakaree, nidighika, durpradharsha, kshudrakandika, vyaaghree.
Bettel nut : puga, pugaphalam, kramuka, guvaka, ghonda.
Eclipta alba : kesaraja, bhrmgraja, kunlavardhana, bhrunga, angaraka, kesaranjana
Strobilanthus heyniyanus : saireya, sahachara, daasi
Monochoria hastaefolia : neelolpala
Five leaved chest tree: nirgundi, sindhuvara, neelamanjaree, indrasu, rasa, indranika, bhootakesi, neelikaa.
Clove : lava: varaa, devapushpa, bhrunga, sreeprasoonaka
Heatid cassia : chakramarda, prachanda, dadrughna, prapunnata;, mesha, lochana, padmata, edagaja, chakree.
Sandal wood : sreekhandam, swethachandanam, chandanam, hima:seetam, seetham, gandhadyam, bhadrasree
Onion : rajapalandu, drugndha, mukhabhooshana, yavaneshta
Clerodendrum serratum : bharngi, Barbara, fanji, brahmika, kasajil, brahmayashti.
Lime : nimbuka, jambhaka, jambeera
Green gram : mudga, simbisreshta, varnaha, rasotthama
Erva lanata : bhadrika, gorakshaganja, kurandaka
Nutmeg : jatji : Jatikosa : malateephala:
Jamun tree : jambavam, mahaneela, phalendra, surabhee patra, neelaphala, mahaskanda, nandee, rajjamboo
Boerhavia diffus : purarnava, punarbhava, sophaghnee, varshaabha:
Downi christia : dhathakee, agnijwaala, dhatraupushpee, dhatupushpee, bahupushpika
Bahera tree : vibheetika, vibheetakee, anlaghnaka, aksham, kalidruma:, bhootavasa
Lotus : saraseeruham, rajeevam, pushkarasikha, ambujam, kamalam,sathapatram, padmam, nalinam, aravindam, sahasrtapatram, pankarooham, kusesayam.
Long pepper : pippalli, upakula, Krishna, magadha, vaidehi, kana, krukala
Lencas aspera : dronapushpee, chitrapatrika, phaleph ushpa, kabhapriya, drona.
Holy basil : manjari, krishnatulasi, surasam, gramyaa, surabhee, bahumanjari, bhootaghani, devadundubhi, tulasi.
Ixora : raktala, paatalee, paaranti
Touch me not : lajjalu, raktapaadi, namaskari, sparsalajja, kharatwak, sankochini
Indian rubarb : trivruta, tribhandee, sarala, triputa: suvaha, rechanee, nisotraa
Indian sarasaparilla : saribaa, ananthamoola, gopavallee, dhavala, gopakanyaka, krusodaree, gopa
Cowhage : ajada, kandoora, pravrushenya, sukasimbee, kapikacchu, markatee, kulakshayaa
Black musali : thalamooli, thalamoolika, thalapatrika, bhoothali, hamsapadi, dheerghakandika
Country chiratta : bhoonimba, kiratatikta, katutikta, thiktaka
Indigo plant : neela, neelini, neelika, tutha, graminee, ranjini
White murda : arjuna, kokula, partha, indradruma, dhavala, veeruvruksha, nadeesaraja, karuveera, krishnasarathi, arjuna, kaahu, ahua
Crateva : varunam, pasugandham, asmareeghna, thikta
Purgiong croton : jayapala, dantibeejam, kumbhee, dravanti, tinthrideephalam.
Seesling tree : sireesha: phanji, kapethana, sukapushpa, sukataru, mrudupushpa,
Indian gooseberry : vayastha, dhatri, dhatriphalam, amruta, aamalaka, vrushya, sivam
Cottonplant : karpasikaa, samudranta, sarinee, guda, badari, tundkeri
Indian trumpet floer tree : syonaka, aralu, deerghvrutta, pruthusimba, tuntuka
Chey root : parpat, jwarghna, sookshma patra, seetapriya, pittari
Cyclea peltata : paatika, ambashtakee, varatikta, aviddhakarna, tamgnee, paataa
Kaligottu : patala, krishnavrunta, tamrapushpee, kuberakshi
Finger leamorning glory : ksheeravidaari, ikshugandha, bhoomimanda, payaswinin, vrushyavallika, ikshuvalli.
Bitter guard : susavi, karavellaka, karavella, katillaka:
Imula rcemosa : pushkara, padmapatra, poushkara, pushkara, sipha, pushkaramoola, kashmeera, kushtabheda.
Indian sorel : amlika, chagery, sargheri, dantasata, amlaruha
Umbrella tree : gardabhandam, parisha, kamandalu
Chonemorpha macrophylla : madhusroni, dhanurmala, murva, murva, madhusava, murvee, dhanuguna
Flame of the forest : palasam, kimsuka, raktpushpaka, kshara, sreshta, brahavruksha
Bacopa monnieri : brahm thrayantee, seetakamini, bhekaparnee
Indian maddar : manjishta, vikasha, samanga, rakthangee, raktayashtika, kaalamishika, yojanavalli, vastrabhooshana
Turmeric : Haridra, gouri, rajani, varangee
Tree turmeric : daruharidra, kaleeykiyam, peetadaru
Coriander : dhanya, chatra, vitunnakam
Pomgranata : dadimam, daadima, kuchaphala, dantabeejaka, lohitpushpaka
Horse gram : kulatha, kulatthika
Nut grass : mustaka, varida, musta, jaldhara, ambudhara, Ghana, payodhara, kuruvinda, kuruvid/ndwakhya, mothoa, nagaramotha
Grape vine : draaksha, mrudveeka, gosthana, swaduphala, amrutaphala
Drum stick : sigru, sigrujam, sobhanjana, akshiva, mochaka, theekshanagandha
Climbing lilly : longalika, sakrapushpika, agnisikha
Wawrung : vidanga, krumighna, krimiripu
Garlic : iasunam, urgagandham, bhoothaghna, mlechagandha, yavaneshtam, melchkandhu, rasona.
Indian kino tree : bandhuka, peetasala, asana, bandhukapusjspa, petakam
Butterfly bean : ankapushpee, gavakshee, sankaahwa, mangalya, devkusuma, girikarnika aparajita
Asparagus racemosum : satvari, abheeru, narayanee, sahasraveerya.
Walnut : akhobha, phalasneha, rekhaphala, vatghni, vrudhaphala, parvateeya, gudasaya
Vithania : aswagandha, turagagandha, gajeeganda, hayagandha, varaha, varada,
Bishops weed : agni, agnika, ajamodaka, deepyaka, khaaswa, yavanika, bhoomidambaka
Birth wort : keetamari, dhoomrapata, nakulee
Water lilly: kumudam, pundareekam, rajeevam, indeevaram
Licorice : yashtimadhura, kleethaka, athirasa, madhusrva
Cinnamon : thwkptra, tamala, tamalapatram, chocha, varanga
Tooth brush tree : bruihat pilu, gouri, lakhupilu, madhupilu, mahaphala, mahavruksha
Fenugreek : methi, methika, bahupatrika, bahubeejam, gandhaphala, vallari, kunjika, deepana
Country mallow : atibala, balika, balyam, ghanda, vatyapushpee, bhooribala
Zachum oil plant : ingudi, thapaataru, putigandha, kandakeetam, angarapushpa, kandakeevruksha.
Round sidory : satee, karchoora, suganghamoola, dravida, gandhasatee
Mustard : rajika, asuree, theekshanagandha, arsapa
Dark catechu : khadir, kushtari, raktaaram, danthadavana, yajnanga, bahusalya, gayatri
Caraway : krishnajeeraka, bahuguna, krishnajaji, kat neela
Quasia indica : neelavruksha, neelasara
Palmyra plm : thala, aavadruma, dwajadruma, deerghaskanda, duraroha, lekhyapatra.
Babul : baboola, baboolika, barbura, pootimeda, deerghakandaka, peetapushpa, sookshama sakha,
Spurge : snuhi, samanthadugda, vajra, sehundam
Bonduc tree : kuberakshi, lathakaranja, grutakaranja, ksheerinee
American worm seed : chivillika, goudavstuaka, sugandha vastuka
Indian borage : adhopushpi, surasam, romalum, avakapushpee, dhenujihwa
Asafoetida : hingu, sahasravedi, ramata, asugra, jantughana, agoodagandham, jarana
Bengal current : karmada, avighna, krishnapaka, krishnapanaphala, drudakandaka,
Babchi : vakuchi, somarajee, suvalli, somavallika, avluguja, krishnaphala, putriphala, chandalekha, durgandha, kalameshi, kushtanasini, kaphanasini, putiphalee, bhookesi, bakuchi.
Chireta plant : kiratatikta, haima, kandatikta, bhonimba, mahatikta, chiayata
Safron plant: kesara, kunkum, ghusorna, rakta, rudhir, kashmira, aruna, deepaka,
Malabar tamarind : vrukshamla, phalamla, raktasamjna, amrutadrumba, rasamlam, savedhi, tanthrini
Henbane : paraseekayavani, yavaneeyavani, thrivagandha, madkarini, syamakubera, ruruksha
Thach scare pine : Ketkee, chamarapushpaka, dhooleepushpika, deerghapatra, gandhapushpa, indukalika, jambuka, kandadala, ketaka
Costus : kushtam, pushkara, kasmeerarajam, vapyam, rogam, agada, vyadhi, ulpalam, pakalam rucha, visha
Ivy guard : bimbi, bimbika, danthachadopama
Gumnema sylvestris : ajasrungee, madhulika, madhunasinee, meshsrungee, tikthadugda.
Indian mahagani : tunee, kubera, nandeevruksha, kaccha, peetatuni, mahanimba, kanakam.
Brazil wood : bhavya vruksha, kuchandanam, lohitam, patanga, ranjanam
Champa : chmpaka, athigndha, champeya, sukumara, hemapushpa, seetalacchada, kanchana
Indian senna : sonamukhee, bhoomichari, markandika
China root : dveepanthara vacha, madhusnuhi
Flax seed : rudrapatnee, ratnaptr, neelapushpa, suvarchala, uma, athasee, masruna.
Indian night shade : akrantha, bruhatee, kandakini, kshudravarthakee, simhee
Muskroot plant / jadamansi : jadamamsee, bhotajada, jadila, thapaswini, sulomasa, nalitha, krishnajkada, mashika, misi
Purple lippa : jalapippali, srdee, sakuladini, malsya gandha, languli, bahusikha
Cumin : jeeraka, ajajijee, jeerana, kana, deerghajeeraka, hrudru, deepyaka, manojna, ruchya.
Gokru : gokshura, gokshuraka, bhaksharaka, gokhuru, gokuandaka, shadanga, kandapatrika, vanasrungada
Star anise : kakkolam, kokkola
Indian valerian : thagara, kalamsarakam, kutila, chkra, barhana, kshtra, rajaharshanan.
Himalayan silver fir : thaleesa, thaleesam, thaleepatram, patrakhyam, dhatreepatram, neela, sukodaram
Fagonia arabica : durlabha, danvyasa, thamramoola, dusparsa, samudranta, kaccharu, sookshmapatra, harivigraha, anantha
East Indian rosebay : nandeevruksha, ksheerika, ksheeri, kshayadruma, nandyavarita, thagarachandanee, cishnupriya, chameliu, chandini, thagara.
Indian squill : vanapalandu, kolakanda, krumighna, pancjalam, putakanda, suputa.
Iron wood tree : nagakesara, nagapushpa, kanakahwam, hemakinjalkam
Strebulus asper : rukshapara, peetaphala, sakhotata, asshadoorta, bhootavruksha, gavakshee, karkasacchada.
Soapanut tree : arishta, phenila, gucchaphala, reetaa, somavallika, reeta karnja
Ribbed guard : thikta kosataki, dhamargava, dharaphala, kosatakee, krutacchidra, thikta, deerghaphala, jalini, karkotakee, devatala, jeemuta jinga
Tobacco : dhoomra patra, thamalam, maboolaka, ksharpatra, vajrabhrungee, kalanja
Ceylon oak : kosmr, lakshavruksha, kshudramra, dhanaskanda, krumitharu.
Sweet fennel : misreya, madhurika, misi, saleya,
Barley : yava, akshapatram, dhanraja, divyam, hayapriya, hayeshta, kunjukee, medhya. Pavitradhanya, sukta, swetsranga, seetasuka
Tree of heaven : arala, deerghavrunta, mahaniba, pootivruksha, khotakaranja
Blacknight shade : kakamachee, kakamata, kakakokali, kushghnee,bahuphala, bahutikta, sundaree, swadupaka.
Jangli badam : toovaraka, kushtavairi
Velve leaf : lakhupata, peeluphala, ambashtakee, varatikta, bruhatthikta
Giant taro : maananam, mahapatra, sphoolakanda
Headache tree : agni manda, arani, ganikarika, vaijayantra:
Red sandalwood : raktachandna, raktasara, kshudra chandana, harichandanam
Cuscus grass : usira, samagandhika, ranapriya, veeram, veeranam, sevyam
Rosary nut : Rudraksha tree : rudraksha, bhootanasana, neelakdaaksha, sivakahsa.
Chinese date : badaram, badari, badarika, phelila, koli
Indian aconite : valsanabha, visham, garalam, jangulam, halaahalam, theekshanam
Sweet flag : vacha, ugragandha, golomi, jadila, lomasa, shadgranthi, sataparvika, satapatri, mangalyam
Cubebs plant : sugandheephalam, kruthphalam kla, katukaphalam, choornaka, dviparicha, kankola, kankolaka.
Drill : satpushpa, satahva, madhura
Garden rue : gucchapatra, peetapushpa, satapadika, srpadamshtra, vishapaha, somalata
Sal tree : rala, salaja, salavruksha, dhrupavruksha, sarjarasa
Sugar apple : bahubeejaka, gandagatra, krishnabeeja, seetaphala
Sunflower : sooryavarcha, adityabhaktam, suvarchala, suryukhee.
COMMONLY USED MEDICINAL PLANTS, THEIR ACTIVE PRINCIPLES AND USES.
Agasta : which is also known in Sanskrit as Agasti, agastidru is an important ayurvedic medicinal component which has large amount of tannin on the bark and blood red colored latex. It has vitamins minerals and other micronutrients. It is used for thridosha based ailments, fever, headache, injuries, etc.
Alangium known in Sanskrit as Ankola is an effective medicinal plant which has a number of Sanskrit names. It contains in its roots the alargin, markin and markidine alkaloids. It can be used for curing blood pressure based illness, hydrophoboea, fever and as anthelmentic etc.
Ackonite, which in Sanskrit known as athivishta, srungikam, etc has large quantity of carbohydrate, protein, glycerides, tannic acid, hestidine, heterophillicin, heterophillin, aconitin, etc. in the form of alkaloids. The plant parts are used for digestive abnormalities, fever, poisons, gland swellings, etc.
Tinospora known in Sanskrit as Guloochi or amruthavalli has berberin as one of the most important alkaloids in it. This plant has also got a component which is highly bitter in nature. The essence of the stem is used in many ayurvedic medicines. It is proved that the medicinal component present in the plant can control body temperature, purify the blood, improves the digestion power, it cures the skin diseases and diabetics. It is known to cleanse the kidney.
Asoka tree is known in Sanskrit as Asoka, hemapushpa, etc. It has high content of tannin in the bark. Catechol is another important constituent of the bark. It contains both essential oils and small amount of fixed oils in it. The imortant glycosides present in asoka tree bark are haemotoxylin and ketosterol. It also contains large amount of saponin and calcium steroids.
The medicinal constituents of the bark are useful against poisons, and it reduces blood flow. It is bacteriocidal, and fastens the curation of wounds and reduces the stomach ache. Malabar nut also known as Adathoda, has many names in Sanskrit. It is known as vasa vasaka: etc., Highly volatile oils are present in leaf, flower, root and seeds. The leaf contains vasisine alkaloid. The surface bark of the root has high quantity of the alkaloids. The drug is very effective against capillary bleeding. It improves the count of blood platellites.
Neem is a well known medicinal plant effectively used for many abnormalities in the body. It has many names in Sanskrit, nimba: arishta: thiktaka:, etc., are few among these names. It has margosin alkaloids in leaves and bark. The seeds contain margosopicrin, and large amount of fixed oil and glycosides. Nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidin, nimbostyrole, etc., are present in the seed oil. The flower has highly useful essential oil. The plant is very effective for the purification of blood, as a remedy for skin diseases, as anthelmentics, etc.
The century fig, known in Sanskrit as udumbara is a tree which contains tannins, saponins, wax etc. The active principles of the plant is known to purify the blood, effective for the urinary abnormalities, skin diseases, etc.
Castor plant which in Sanskrit is known as eranda, panchangula, vathari, etc., contains more than 50% of the seed weight the castor oil. This oil is the richest source of recinoliec acid. It also contains resins. This resin is highly poisonous glycoprotein, which is soluble in water. The Castor oil is a very inportant laxative.
Ginger, known in Sanskrit as sundi, nagara: etc., is an important constituent of ayurvedic preparations. High quantity of volatile oil and gingerol are the important constituent. It is said that there is no kashaya without ginger. It activates the digestive systems and is effective for fever and other ailments. In modern medicine also the giner is used. Gingelly which in Sanskrit known as thila : is an important constituent in many after death ceremonies, may be due to the fact that, the Upanishad describe sesame/gingely and connect the body with black cover of the seed and the oil as atma present inside. Other than high quantity protein, oil and carbohydrate, the seed also contains sesamine, sesamolin. It effects our body in many ways. It fastens the cleaning of the intenstine, provides essential fatty acids, and protects skin when used for the oil bath.
Cardamom which in Sanskrit is known as ela and also in many other names. It contains both fixed oil and also essential oil. Cardamom is used in modern medicines also. Digestive action, kidney cleaning, maintaining body temperature, etc., are said to be the beneficial action of the cardamom.
Prickly chaff flower known in Sanskrit as apaamarga: or mayoora contains the hentriya contane, saponins, oleonolic acid, etc. It is effective for urinary problems, reducing the deleterious effects of materials in body.
Terminalia chebula is perhaps the most important ayurvedic drug, known in Sanskrit as hareetakee, abhaya etc. It contains chebulinic acid, large quantity of tannins, etc. It has variety of medicinal properties. Digestive systems, procreative tissues, general tissues, etc are beneficially affected by the chebula.
Strobilanthus known in Sanskrit as sahachara is used for external and internal body application in Ayurveda. It contains high amount of potassium in leaves and an unusal alkaloid known as lupieol in the root. This drug is used for preparing ayurvedic formulation for the purification of blood, improving the sexual life and many types of skin disorers.
Monochoria known in Sanskrit as neelolpalam, is used for drug preparations. All parts of the plants are effectively useful. It improves the health, cures the burns and maintains the body temperature and useful for the fever. Five leaved chest tree is known in Sanskrit as nirgundi, sinduvara: Meelamanjari, etc. It has large volume of volatile oils, resins, aromatic compounds, carbonic acids, variety of alkaloids, etc. The most effective components are tritia contane, N-hentria contane, N-pentantria, B sitosterols, hydroxy benzoic acid etc have received attention from researchers.
Bermooda grass even though wrongly named like this is a very important grassy plant used in medicinal preparation known in Sanskrit as durva, rooha, etc. It contains small amount of volatile oil, high content of minerals, and used for urinary problems, purification of blood, etc.
Trichosanthus is known in Sanskrit as patola, koolaka, etc It contains saponins, hentria containe, and fixed oil and little volatile also in the seed. It activates the digestive power, reduces the skin diseases, and other types of infections internally and externally.
Black oil tree, known in Sanskrit as jyothishmati, thejovati etc has oleum nigrum-a black coloured oil and also an yellow coloured oil in the seeds. The most important alkaloids present in the oil is said to be the cryojote.
Phylanthus deblis is known in Sanskrit as Bhoodhatri, bhoomyamalaki etc, which has highly poisonous material in the leaves. This component is effective towards jaundice. stomach ache, digestion, for preventing bleeding, etc.
Indian pennivert is a plant known in Sanskrit as mandookee, bhramee, etc., in contains amino acids, apartic acids, glycine, glutamic acid, phenyl alanine, etc. It is effective for improving memory and for rejuvenation. The bromides present in the plant extract is a good sedative. It is used for mental disorders also.
Black pepper, known in Sanskrit as mareecha valleeja, etc., has piperine alkaloids in the seed and skin. It also contains chavisin, piperidine, essential oils, resins, etc. and used against fever, cough, cold, and many digestive problems.
The sida plant known in Sanskrit as bala, vatyaala, etc., contains high amount of alkaloids, steroids, effidrinoid, etc. It is effective against paralyses, sexual disorders, as a pain killer and also against fever and cold. Bel tree, is known in Sanskrit as bilwa, maloora:, etc. It contains emparatoriam A and B which are effective anthelmentics. Riboflavin, pepsin, tannins are other compounds present in bilva seed /fruit. It is a very effective medicine as raw and also after ripening. It contains marmin and marmalosin which are medicinal components. The oil contains egilin and egilanin which are alkaloids.
Indian dellium known in Sanskrit as guggulu, has myrcene, dimercyne, polymyrcene, etc as a part of the aromatic compounds present in the volatile oil. It is effective as a pain killer and for blood abnormalities. Used as a smoking agent and bacteriocidal component.
Clove has many names in Sanskrit, like lava, vara, devapushpa, etc. It has many role in the preparation of ayurvedic drugs. It contains more than 19% essential volatile oil. The oil is also present in leaves. Eugenol, caryophyllene and their isomers. It is used both in ayurveda and modern medicines, for improving digestion, against many diseases, as antiseptic, lungs disorders and as pain killers.
Bone setter, is an important medicinal plant which in Sanskrit is known as vajravalli, kulisa etc. It contains calcium oxalate, ascorbic acid, carotene, and the usual components present in other plants. It is known as bone setter and very effective in bone abnormalities.
Sandal wood, is a very expensive woody drug known in Sanskrit as swethachandanam, chandanam, etc. It has volatile highly viscous oil containing santalene, santalol and santalal, which are effective medicines. It is an energizer for the body and used for aroma therapy also. It is effective for urinary infections and blockages.
Fire plant known in Sanskrit as chitra and ooshnam. It has plumbagin alkaloid in its roots and hence the root is very effective drug for internal and skin based abnormalities mainly stomach problems in children.
Green gram is known from the vedic period as mudgam. It is a part of the Indian food It is contains albuminoids. It effective for cleaning the intenstine, imporving the digestive capacity, reducing fever and cold.
Erva lanta is the medicinal plant known in Sanskrit as bhadrika used effectively for removing the kidney stones by dissolving them out.
Nutmeg is known in Sanskrit as jati has lot of essential oil in the seed. It contains myristin, myristidin, myristic acid, etc. The volatile oil contains myristicol. All the these components together make the nutmeg and effective drug for improving digestion, curing stomach based illness, improving sexual capability, etc.
Boyerhavia diffusa is known in Sanskrit as punarnava, and punarbhava, and contains punarnavin alkaloid used mainly for urinary problems. The punarnavasavam is an important ayurveda drug.
Downly christia is known in Sanskrit as dhatakee. It has tannin in large quantity and variety of other components. Highly active as bacteriocidal and digestive enhancer.
Lotus known in Sanskrit as saraseeruham, is an effective drug to enhance or retard the actual qualities of other drug components. All the parts of lotus are useful as drugs. The most important active principle present in lotus rhizome is the nilemben. It regulates the blood flow, controls blood related problems. It is also used as an antiseptic.
Long pepper known in Sanskrit as pippalli, has pipyartin, piperin, as alkaloids and has large volume of volatile oil. From the stem the seroids are obtained. The important steroid are dihydro stigmasterine and serioid.
Holy basil is known as tulasi has large amount of volatile oil and used against fever, heart problems and lungs problems. It is used as antiseptic. Very effective for skin diseases also.
Ixora coccinia known in Sanskrit as raktala has tannin, fixed oil, acidic components, etc. The plant is useful for stomach ache and other stomach problems. It is effective as antimicrobial.
Touch me not is known in Sanskrit Lajjalu and raktapad is effective for pulmonary problems, thirst based symptoms, and as anti bacterial.
Cowhage known in Sanskrit as ajada, kandoora has variety of minerals in it and dihydroxy phenyl alanine, glutathion, lecithin, gallic acid, variety of glucosides, etc. It is excellent for rejuvenation and improving blood circulation.
Country chiratta is known as bhoonimba and thiktaka having little oil and bitter principles, The kalmegnin alkaloid is present at very high level in this plant. Used for the lever problems in the children, improving the performance of digestive glands and purification of blood.
Indigo plant is known in Sanskrit as nila, thuttha, etc which has indgotin upto 50% and indigotin in Sanskrit is known as nadkarni. The drug is used as antiseptic, and also for parallitic abnormalities.
Indina gooseberry is known in Sanskrit as dhatree, amrutha, amalakee, etc. It contains pectin, vitamin C, high level of iron, tannic acid, resin, sugar, albumin etc., It is used in health tonics for purification of blood, eye ointments, bone abnormalities, creating healthy blood vessels, and for improving digestive power.
Indian trumpet flower tree, known in Sanskrit as syonaka, aralu has oroxylin crystals and bitter principles. It has pectin and different types of alkaloids. It is used against parallytic problems, and digestive problems.
Stereospermum chelonides, known in Sanskrit as patala, krishnavruntha etc., has lapacol which is an important antitumour component and used for edema. It is a pain killer, and used for digestive problems.
Ashclared fliben known in Sanskrit as sahadevi has beta amerin acetate, luppeol acetate, beta amerin lupeol, alpha spinasterol, and used for urinary problems and as antiseptic.
Bacopa monnieri known in Sanskrit as brahmi has brahminin, erpestin, alkaloids, this plant has highly effective use in heart based problems, affects positively the blood circulation and improves memory power.
Indian medder, known as manjishta, or vikasha has manjistin, garasin, alizarin, santhin glycosides in the roots. Hence used as brain and joint pain killer. It is used for the purification of blood, for diabetics, and has antiseptic property also.
Turmeric known in Sanskrit as haridra, gouri, rajani has rhizomin, turmeron curcumin, as alkaloids and essential oil components. It is an effective antispectic and colourant.
Coriander known in Sanskrit as dhanya, chatra, etc has both fixed and essential oils, in the seed and leaves. It also contains coriandrin and geraniol as the most important components. It improves digestive power, and acts as energizer.
Biophytum senstivium known as samanga and alambusha has very effective anti cough property and used as anti-inflamation agent.
Nut grass known in Sanskrit as mustaka, and varidam has variety of essential oil components and alkaloids. These components are effectively used for fever, cleaning intestine, improving digestive power and against urinary problems.
Emila sonchifolia is known in Sanskrit as sasasruti is effective against fever, stomach problems tonsellites, etc.
Drumstick known as sigru in Sanskrit has moringin, moringinin, alkaloids in the root and bark, It is an important anti inflammatory drug for external application and can be used as a good sweating agent and sedative.
Wawrung known in Sanskrit as vodanga had embellic acid, fixed oil, essential oils, tannin and an alkaloid known as elbellin. It is used as anthelmentic and as anti leprosy drug.
Garlic in Sanskrit known as lasunam or ugrasandha, has propyl disulphide and di allyl disulphide, which gives the characterstic properties of the garlic. It is used for many body abnormalities and as a part of ayurvedic drug formulations.
Asparagus racemousus, known in Sanskrit as satavaree has aspargin alkaloid. The plant is used for variety of illness, like sexual problems, blood diseases, high temperatire, etc.
Withania root known in Sanskrit as aswagandha and also in many synonyms, has variety of alkaloids in the leaves known as withanolides This is a starting material for the withaferin used an antimicrobials. Thirteen types of alkaloids have been isolated from the roots. Anahygrine, meso anaferine, cusco hygrine, isopelleterine, hygrine, tropine, pseudotropine, choline, withasomnine, somniferine, etc are the important among the lakaloids. It is used as a sedative, energises the activity of heart, brain and blood cirulation systems. It cures head ache, skin abnormalties, etc. interestingly all the parts of this plant has medicinal properties.
Bishops weed in Sanskrit is known as agni, ajamodaka and so on. It has measurable amount of volatiles and the compound apiin is extracted from the oil, which is a glycoside. The seeds are highly antiseptic in nature. It is used for solving the problems connected with digestive systems, and directly influences the heart beat, reduces pain in body.
Licorice known in Sanskrit as yastimadhu and athirasa. It has high quantity glycerine, ramnoglycoside, licuiritigin, licuiritin, isolicuritigenin, which are all the glycosides. The drug has most effective use in the throat cleaning, intestine cleaning, and effective for the lungs functioning, heart beat, stomach based problems, vomiting, etc it is also used for abnormalities in the eyes.
Fenugreek known in Sanskrit as methika. It has trigonelline and choline, as alkaloids. It has aromatic compounds like quercetin and inteolin which are glycosides. It is excellent for the arthritis, and a stimulant for endocrine and digestive systems. It has a variety of other ayurvedic properties also.
Asafoeitida which in Sanskrit is known as hingu, ramata, etc., contains less than 3% volatile oil. It contains camphene, epinine, etc. The asafoetida is a good digestant, enhances memory. It is excellent as stomach active agent and digestant.
Chiretta plant, known in Sanskrit as kiratikta, haima, etc has chiratin, ophelic acid and margiferin, jentianin as alkaloids. The plant is effective for fever, malaria and related diseases.
Costus, known in Sanskrit as kushtam, pushkara, etc., has a powerful oil which has a glycoside known as sossurine alkaloid. It also has tannin. Cures the lungs and digestive- abnormalities. It is effective for cough, allergy, skin disorders, etc.
Gymnema sylvestre is known is Sanskrit as ajasrungee, madhulikaa, etc. It has noncosane, hentriyacontane, triaconatene and gymnemic acid. It also has anthraquinone and ideal for diabetics, diuretic, regulates heart activities, and excellent remedy for snake bite.
Indian senna, known in Sanskrit as sonamukhi has sennoside A and B mannitol, salicylic acid, chrysophanic acid saponins, etc. It is a very good purgative. It reduces skin disorders, and act as anthelmentics.Cumin in Sanskrit known as jeeraka, ajajee, etc has volatile oil containing aldehydes, cymine, etc. This is an excellent digestive stimulant, anti-vomiting agent, cures and eye infections.
Himalayan silver fur known in Sanskrit as thaleesapatra and thaleesam has siyadopithicin as an important constituent in the leaves. It reduces cough and lungs based abnormalities.
Himalayan cedar known in Sanskrit as devadaru, suradaru, etc. It contains an oleoresin in the trunk. It has turpentine and cholestyrin.
These are all Herbal Medicines found in Ancient India. Hope this will be usefull to everyone. thank you for reading.
Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya' s work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the "Surya Siddhant" he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India. His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.
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MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN
Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam. " He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.
Health science (Health science is a part of ayurveda which is an upaveda of Atharva veda. It is also discussed in yoga sastra which is one among the six darsanas of the Hindus. The subject has also been dealt with in puranas and itihasas): The Indian vision on health as given by Maharshi Susrutha, Charaka and Vagbhatachaarya and many others. The approach taken by Patanjali in Yoga saastra, the spiritual approach of body and mind, etc will be the part of the Indian health science. Aswini devatha concept of hitha aayaasa and mitha aahaara (food & exercise), need of appropriate exercise based of the age‐sex‐physiological conditions, etc.
Yogaasanas, sooryanamaskaara, effect of medicines, identification of diseases through saastram pramaanam/ aaptavaakyam pramaanam/prthyksham pramaanam/ anumaanam pramanam / methods. Use of drugs, fastings and pathyas and fasting as a part of customs/rituals. Selection of food based on climatic variation/age/health conditions/etc of the person/patient, physical and mental rest, upaasana and worship as a part of day to day life, ethics and morality in the common man’s life and also for doctors, … causes of illness, pathogenic organisms, precautions to be taken for good health, solar therapy, music therapy, Yoga therapy, Reiki, energy healing, water therapy, as described in the Indian system. The knowledge on surgery and plastic surgery and surgical equipments known sastras and yanthras as described in Susrutha smhitha, practicing surgery as given by Maharshi Susrutha. Variety of acharas/customs and rituals influencing the health. Importance of vegetarian foods. Indian traditional foods and their merits. Taking oil bath during selected days, hot/cold water bath. Allowing children to play in the soils after smearing the oil. ‘Grandmaa’s technological foods’ for babies and baby health care system existed in ancient India.
Mental Health / Psychology (this again is a subject of ayurveda and yoga/ poorva meemamsa/uttarameemamsa/vaiseshika/ darsanas and Upanishads. It has been discussed in detail in Yogavasishta, Bhagavath geetha, dharma saastra and so on): Description of mind given in Upanishads, mental influence on health, the influence of yamaas and niyamaas: ahimsa‐ satyam‐ astheyam‐brahmacharya‐ aparigraham‐ oucham‐ snthosha‐ thapa‐ swadhyayam‐ eeswara pranidhaanam –etc. Effect of stabilised vision on life, controlling the angr,fear,and attachment, mental preparations to face ups and downs/loss and profit/ success and failures/ animosity and friendship/ appreciations and criticisms …as described in Indian philosophical books. Influence of puranic / epic related stories in mind to face the realities of the life. Influence of pranayam/ dhyaana/dharana etc on the mental development. Impact of food on mind as proved by the modern science, effect of saatwic food, dreams, effect of manthras on mind, customs influencing the mental health and family relations. Analyses of the purpose of living, family‐social‐and national goals to be put forth for a purposeful life and its impact on mind. Spirituality and faith in healing. Effect of curative chemical on mind and body. Bhajans /keerthans/ prayer/ manthras etc on mind. The positive songs and images influencing the mind. Psychologically influencing acharas.
Food science (very specific explanations are givenin ayurveda‐ as told –it is a part of atharvaveda. It has been given in dharma saastra and gruhyasootra part of kalpasastra and to some extent in puraanaas): Variety of Indian foods, balanced nutritious foods, natural traditional baby foods, the medicinal components usually added in Indian foods (like asafoetida, turmeric, spices, mustard, etc), pathya based food during illness, specialized cooking, roasting, fermenting, processing, preserving, etc. done for variety of foods and their science. Generation of specific flavors in foods by suitably modifying spices. The science of altering the foods during fasting on specific days like ekaadasi/ somavaar vratha/ karthika month/ vaisaakha month/ etc. Opting for integrated balanced foods through fasting and vrathaas, importance of selecting cooking vessels like ceramics / iron/copper/ brass vessels ( for getting micro nutrients like, iron, zinc, copper, silica, magnesium, sodium, potassium etc), variety of vegetables and their significance in balanced healthy foods. Many more significant scientific observations can be made if a student carefully examines the Indian foods, naturopathy, and vegetarian food.
Chemistry ( Rasachikitsa is a part of atharvaveda based ayurveda prevalent in north India. All the authors of Rasachikitsa were Siddhas or Maharshies. The chemistry descriptions, one can see sytematically in the rasa books) : The ancient Indian chemistry books like rasarnava, rasaratna samucchaya, rasendra choodamany, rasarnavakalpa, rasa chandrika, rasaratnakara, and hundreds of rasa based books . (These books are available in Sanskrit with English or Hindi translations.). The knowledge on chemicals, particularly in inorganic chemicals, like sulphides/ sulphates/oxides/ etc. Sanskrit names of chemicals, detailed description given for setting up a laboratory, scientific temper, qualification of laboratory assistants, research scholars as described in Rasaratna samucchaya. properties of inorganic chemicals and their use described by Vagbhatacharya, centuries ago. Chemicals used for various purposes as described in Bharadhvaja in yantra sarvaswa, Varahamihira in Bruhath samhita and also by others in the above chemistry books .
Bio‐pesticides( biopesticides are part of vrukshayurveda which again is a part of Ayurveda or Bhruhat samhitha): Variety of plant products, Neem, sweet neem, neem cake, mustard cake, tulasi, clove, pepper, turmeric, tobacco, oils from sesame , cotton seed, castor etc., used as bio pesticides and as preservatives, traditional methods of pest control like fumigation with neem/ sulphur/ camphor/ coconut husk(since it contains sulphur /coconut shell (raw‐ for its phenolic content) / cow dung (since it contains ammonia). The use of panchagavya / aqueous cow dung filtrate /extract as pesticide. The traditional knowledge available from farmers. Detailed descriptions for controlling the pests/microorganisms/etc given in Vruksha ayurvedic books.
Plant drugs/pharmacology ( this is a part of the atharvavedic ayurveda): Active plant bio‐chemicals possessing medicinal plants, as described in Charaka samhita, Ashtanga hrudaya, ashtanga sangraha, sahasrayoga, etc. comparative studies on modern and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. The student can try to understand as many plants as possible which are good sources of the bio‐active principles. Variety of plants ( herbs, shrubs, creepers, grass, trees etc.) used for curing diseases. The plant leaves, buds, flowers, stems, roots, latex, etc used for treating specific diseases. Single drug treatment.
Medicines and medicinal preparations /plant biochemistry ( Charaka samhitha and Susrutha samhitha are written by Rishies of the caliber of those of vedic Rishies, this also include sages like Chyavana/Brugu/ Vagbhata/Agastya and so on): The descriptions of inorganic chemicals used as medicines in ancient Indian Rasa chikitsa books, their preparations/processing and preservation. The plant products used as drugs, the raw drugs, their harvesting, drying, storage, mixing, drug formulation, decoction preparation, etc. Variety of Ayurvedic drug formulation obtained by mixing many raw drugs. Knowledge on the possible chemical changes taking place in ayurvedic drug preparation while drying, storing, heating, roasting, boiling with water, concentration, etc (all ayurvedic preparations). Here we have to focus only on the knowledge existed and their scientific merits, in the area of plant drugs. The scientific knowledge behind kashaya/decoction preparation, choorna, kwatha, lehya, arishta, ghrutha, thyla. etc reparations and their basic principles of applications.
Basic plant sciences/botany: Detailed description given in Vrukshayurveda by Rishies like Saarngadhara, Katyayana, Varahamihira, Parasara, and others. Plant growth, grafting, irrigation, use of manure, seeds preservation, phototropism, agricultural practices both basic and applied. Seasons of sowing/planting/ biodynamics of agricultural practice, etc., Variety of the traditional knowledge still practiced in villages, in the production of agriculture commodities.
Fermentation technology. The knowledge of microorganisms existed in India as described in ayurvedic books. Fermentation of milk to curd and yoghurt, fruit juice fermentation to vines, medicinal preparation of arishtas, etc. Fermentation procedures followed in four major types liquors mentioned in Chanakya’s Artha saastra ( Arthasastra is an upaveda of Rigveda), the source of microorganisms, cultures, fermentation products mentioned in the ayurvedic and vrukshayurvedic books. Fermented rice based common solid foods like pan cake, fermentation of traditional liquors from coconut and palm products.
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